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Category: Python

Python programming related stuff

In the posts in this category you will find Python scripts. Python is said to be one of the easiest programming language to learn. Learning one language will also make it easier to learn another, much more advanced, one. As a Bachelor student in the cognitive science programme I got to take Python courses. However, it was not before I started my Ph.D years that I realized how much use I had because I knew some programming.

For a psychology researcher Python might be ideal since it is relatively easy to learn and there is a huge Python community to get help from. How to build experiments using free and open-source tools such as PsychoPy, OpenSesame, Expyriment, and PyEPL is, for instance, something you could find in this category.

Python Pandas Groupby Tutorial

In this Pandas group by we are going to learn how to organize Pandas dataframes by groups. More specifically, we are going to learn how to group by one and multiple columns. Furthermore, we are going to learn how calculate some basics summary statistics (e.g., mean, median), convert Pandas groupby to dataframe, calculate the percentage of observations in each group, and many more useful things.

First of all we are going to import pandas as pd, and read a CSV file, using the read_csv method, to a dataframe. In the example below, we use index_col=0 because the first row in the dataset is the index column.

Explorative Data Analysis with Pandas, SciPy, and Seaborn

In this post we are going to learn to explore data using Python, Pandas, and Seaborn. The data we are going to explore is data from a Wikipedia article. In this post we are actually going to learn how to parse data from a URL, exploring this data by grouping it and data visualization. More specifically, we will learn how to count missing values, group data to calculate the mean, and then visualize relationships between two variables, among other things.

In previous posts we have used Pandas to import data from Excel and CSV files. Here we are going to use Pandas read_html because it has support for reading data from HTML from URLs (https or http). To read HTML Pandas use one of the Python libraries LXML, Html5Lib, or BeautifulSoup4. This means that you have to make sure that at least one of these libraries are installed. In the specific Pandas read_html example here, we use BeautifulSoup4 to parse the html tables from the Wikipedia article.

Pandas Read CSV Tutorial

In this tutorial we will learn how to work with comma separated (CSV) files in Python and Pandas. We will get an overview of how to use Pandas to load CSV to dataframes and how to write dataframes to CSV.

In the first section, we will go through, with examples, how to read a CSV file, how to read specific columns from a CSV, how to read multiple CSV files and combine them to one dataframe, and, finally, how to convert data according to specific datatypes (e.g., using Pandas read_csv dtypes). In the last section we will continue by learning how to write CSV files. That is, we will learn how to export dataframes to CSV files.

How to use Pandas Sample to Select Rows and Columns

In this tutorial we will learn how to use Pandas sample to randomly select rows and columns from a Pandas dataframe. There are some reasons for randomly sample our data; for instance, we may have a very large dataset and want to build our models on a smaller sample of the data. Other examples are when carrying out bootstrapping or cross-validation. Here we will learn how to; select rows at random, set a random seed, sample by group, using weights, and conditions, among other useful things.

Data Manipulation with Pandas: A Brief Tutorial

Learn three data manipulation techniques with Pandas in this guest post by Harish Garg, a software developer and data analyst, and the author of Mastering Exploratory Analysis with pandas.

Modifying a Pandas DataFrame Using the inplace Parameter

In this section, you’ll learn how to modify a DataFrame using the inplace parameter. You’ll first read a real dataset into Pandas. You’ll then see how the inplace parameter impacts a method execution’s end result. You’ll also execute methods with and without the inplace parameter to demonstrate the effect of inplace.

Repeated Measures ANOVA in Python using Statsmodels

In this brief Python data analysis tutorial we will learn how to carry out a repeated measures ANOVA using Statsmodels. More specifically, we will learn how to use the AnovaRM class from statsmodels anova module.

To follow this guide you will need to have Python, Statsmodels, Pandas, and their dependencies installed. One easy way to get these Python packages installed is to install a Python distribituion such as Anaconda (see this YouTube Video on how to install Anaconda). However, if you already have Python installed you can of course use Pip.

A Basic Pandas Dataframe Tutorial for Beginners

In this Pandas tutorial we will learn how to work with Pandas dataframes. More specifically, we will learn how to read and write Excel (i.e., xlsx) and CSV files using Pandas.

We will also learn how to add a column to Pandas dataframe object, and how to remove a column. Finally, we will learn how to subset and group our dataframe. If you are not familiar with installing Python packages I have recorded a YouTube video explaining how to install Pandas. There’s also a playlist with videos towards the end of the post with videos of all topics covered in this post.

Step-by-step guide for solving the Pyvttbl Float and NoneType error

In this short post I will show you a quick fix for the error “unsupported operand type(s) for +: ‘float’ and ‘NoneType’” with Pyvttbl. In earlier posts I have showed how to carry out ANOVA using Pyvttbl (among other packages. See posts 1, 2, 3, and 4 for ANOVA using pyvttbl).

However,  Pyvttbl is not compatible with Python versions greater 1.11 (e.g., 1.12.0, that I am running). This may, of course, be due to that Pyvttbl have not been updated in quite some time.

My solution to this problem involves setting up a Python virtual environment (the set up of the virtual environment it is based on the Hitchikers Guide to Python). You will learn how to set up the virtual environment in Linux and Windows.